One of the key distinctions made in research on English as a lingua franca (ELF) is the difference between language users and learners. ELF data is typically approached from the viewpoint of second language use instead of second language acquisition. Rather than seeing non-native English speakers as perennially deficient pursuers of “native-like” proficiency, ELF researchers start from the position that non-native English is principally English in use – English serves as a vehicular language for doing stuff, and especially for professional life in international domains like academia.
These issues are explored in a study in a recent issue of the Journal of English as a Lingua Franca. Shin-Mei Kao and Wen-Chun Wang take up the user/learner distinction by investigating “lexical and organizational patterns in the presentations made by speakers of different ELF proficiency and experience levels” (Kao & Wang 2014: 54). To do this, they perform a lexical analysis of academic presentations from three different groups – novice students who can be considered as language learners, academic experts using English as a lingua franca, and academic experts who are also English language specialists.
The three datasets are from the following sources:
- novices/language learners – 43 student presentations in an English for Academic Purposes (EAP) course held at National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan. Students are a mixture of Taiwanese and international students, with most students from the field of engineering. Presentations ranged between 2-5 minutes each, with an average of 360 words.
- ELFA corpus – 30 conference presentations from the Corpus of English as a Lingua Franca in Academic Settings (ELFA). These academic experts consist of 49 presenters (mostly between the ages of 31-50) with 20 different first-language backgrounds (and no native English speakers). Each presentation on average lasts 21 minutes with 2568 words.
- John Swales Conference Corpus – 23 conference presentations from the JSCC, recorded at a conference in Michigan celebrating Swales’ retirement. The 28 presenters are all academic experts and English-language specialists from 13 different first-language backgrounds, including an unknown number of English native speakers. The presentations average 3007 words, and only monologues are included to match the ELFA data.